Tuesday, April 21, 2009

A. Insects

Insects in stored rice can be classified into four groups according to their feeding habits namely internal feeders, external feeders and scavengers.
1. Internal Feeders
These are insects whose larvae feed entirely within the kernels of the grain. These includes rice weevil, angoumois grain moth and lesser grain borer.
Rice Weevil (Sitophilos oryzae (Linnaeus)): Adults and larvae feed on a wide variety of grains. Female deposits a single egg in the grain by boring a hole inside. The egg stays in the grain until it becomes an adult thus making the grain completely damaged.
Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitatroga cerealella (Olivier)): Eggs are laid on or near grain. The white larvae bore into the kernels of the grain and feed on the inside. When mature, the larvae eat its way to the outer portion of the grain, leaving only a thin layer of the outer seed coat intact. Pupation takes place just under the seed coat. When the adult emerges from the grain, it pushes aside the thin layer of seed coat leaving a small trap door covering its exit point from the kernel. They infest only the surface layer of bulk-stored grain, adults are unable to penetrate deeply.
Lesser Grain Borer (Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricus)): The eggs are laid in the grain mass and larvae may enter the kernels and develop within or, they may feed externally in the flour-like dust that accumulates from the feeding of the adults and their fellow larvae.
2. External Feeders
External feeders are insects that feed from the outside of the grain even though they may chew through the outer coat and devour the inside.
Cigarette or Tobacco Beetle (Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)): Feeds on books, flax tow, cottonseed meal, rice, ginger, pepper, dried fish, crude drugs, seeds, pyrethrum powder, and dried plants.
Flat Grain Beetle (Cryptolestes pusillus (Schonherr)): The female places her eggs loosely in the grain mass. The larvae and adults are able to penetrate the seed coat of the undamaged grain.
3. Scavengers
Scavengers feed on the grain only after the seed coat has been broken either mechanically or by some other insect.
Saw-toothed Grain Beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus)): Eggs are usually laid, either singly or in small masses, in a crevice in the food supply but in items like flour, they are laid freely.
Pictures and main characteristics of the three main storage pests (sitophilus, tribolium, and ryzopertha):
Sitophilus oryzae
Common name: Rico weevilFamily: Curculionidae
size: 2.5 - 3.5 mm shape: more or less cylindrical colour: black-brown with four reddish spots on the elytra recognition: well defined snout: elbowed and clubbed antennae; circular punctures on the prothorax; can fly
Life history range of temperature: 17 - 34°C optimal temperature: 28°C range of rel. humidity: 45 - 100% optimal rel. humidity: 70% eggs laid: up to 150 separately deposited inside the grain life cycle: 35 days at optimum110 days at sub-optimal conditions
DamageAdults and legless larvae are primary pests of cereals, rice and dried cassava. Larvae spend their lives inside the grain.
Tribolium castaneum
Common name: Rust-red flour beetleFamily: Tenebrionidae
Description size: 3 - 4 mm shape: elongate body, more or less parallel sided colour: red brown - dark brown recognition: antennae are inserted under the sides of the head (frontal ridge) and form a three-segmented club; elytra with finely punctured lines
Distribution: throughout the tropics and the subtropics
Life history range of temperature: 22 - 40°C optimal temperature: 35°C range of rel. humidity: 1 - 90% optimal rel. humidity: 75% eggs laid: up to 500 life cycle: 20 days under optimum conditions
DamageLarvae and adults are secondary pests and attack cereals and cereal products, groundnuts, nuts, spices, coffee, cocoa, dried fruit and occasionally pulses. Infestation leads to persistent disagreeable odours of the products.
Rhyzopertha dominica
Common name: Lesser grain borerFamily: Bostrichidae
Description size: 2 - 3 mm shape: slim, cylindrical colour: red-brown to black-brown recognition: head concealed beneath prothorax (typical for the Bostrichidae); prothorax bears marginal rows of teeth; elytra with well defined rows of punctures
Distribution: mainly in tropical and sub-tropical regions
Life history range of temperature: 18 - 38°C optimal temperature: 34°C range of rel. humidity: 25 - 70% optimal rel. humidity: 60 - 70% eggs laid: 300 - 500 life cycle:20 - 84 days
Primary pest of cereal grains, other seeds, cereal products, dried cassava, etc. Damage is done by adults and larvae, which develop within the grain.
(source: Gwinner et al, Manual on the Prevention of Post-harvest Grain losses, GTZ, Escborn, 1996)
B. Rodents
Rodents are characterised by their teeth. They have a pair of incisor teeth in the upper and lower jaws. The incisors are curved inwards and have an extremely hard anterior coating. The softer inside layer is worn down much more rapidly than the hard, outer layer. This means that the teeth are continually kept sharp, enabling them to damage even materials such as masonry and electric cables. The incisors do not stop growing. This means that the animals are forced to gnaw steadily in order to wear them down.
The three most important rodent species are:
· Black rat or House rat (Rattus rattus)
· Norway rat or Common rat (Rattus norvegicus)
· House mouse (Mus musculus)
There are also a number of species which are of great importance in specific regions:
· Multi-mammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) in Africa and the Middle East;
· Bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) in Southern and South East Asia;
· Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) in South East Asia, also occurring in Southern Asia
Rats and mice cause losses in a number of ways:
- Feeding on stored produce
Rats eat an amount of food equivalent to 7% of their body weight daily, i.e. a rat with a body weight of 250 g will eat around 25 g daily, amounting to 6.5 kg of grain a year. Mice eat a daily amount equivalent to around 15% of their body weight, i.e. a mouse weighing 25 g will eat between 3 and 4 g a day, amounting to 1.4 kg of grain a year. Besides feeding on stored produce, actual losses are much higher, as rodents contaminate the stored produce with urine, faeces, hair and pathogenic agents. As it is extremely difficult if not impossible to remove filth produced by rodents from the stored produce, infested batches often have to be declared unfit for human consumption.
There are around 50 diseases which can be transferred to man by rodents, including typhoid, paratyphoid, and scabies. In addition, rodents may be vectors of a large number of diseases affecting domestic animals. The problems and costs resulting from these diseases are not normally taken into account when assessing infestation by rodents.
As rodents prefer food rich in proteins and vitamins and feed mainly on the embryo, they cause particular damage to the nutritional value and germination ability of seeds.
- Damage to material and equipment (e.g. tarpaulins, bags, pallets, sprayers) and to the store itself (cables, doors).
These often lead to subsequent damage:
· Produce leaking out of damaged bags or storage containers
· Bags stacks collapsing due to damage to the lower layers
· Short circuits leading to sparks or fire from cables being chewed
· Silos and warehouses may subside or even collapse as a result of being undermined
· Drainage canals around a store may be damaged.
Signs of rodent infestation
When there are signs of rodent infestation, it is necessary to conduct a thorough investigation of the store, its immediate surrounding area and neighbouring land.
There are a large number of clear signs of rodent infestation:
Live animals
Rodents are mainly active at night. If animals are nonetheless seen during the daytime, this is a sign of an already advanced stage of infestation.
The shape, size and appearance of droppings can provide information as to the species of rodent and the degree of infestation. The droppings of Norway rats are around 20 mm in length and are found along their runs. The droppings of Black rats are around 15 mm long and are shaped like a banana. Mouse droppings are between 3 and 8 mm in length and irregular in shape. Droppings are soft and shiny when fresh, becoming crumbly and matt black or grey in colour after 2 - 3 days.
Runs and tracks
Runs, such as those of Norway rats, are to be found along the foot of walls, fences or across rubble. They virtually never cross open areas of land, but always pass through overgrown territory, often being concealed by long grass.
Runs inside buildings can be recognized by the fact that they are free of dust. The animal's fur coming into contact with the wall leaves dark, greasy stains. Even Black rats, which do not have any fixed runs, can leave similar greasy stains at points which they pass regularly, e.g. when climbing over roof beams.
Footprints and tail marks
Rats and mice leave footprints and tail marks in the dust. If you suspect there might be rodent infestation, scatter some sort of powder (talcum powder, flour) on the door at several places in the store and later check for traces. The size of the back feet serves as an indication of the species of rodent:
· Back feet larger than 30 mm: Black rat, Norway rat, Bandicoot rat.
· Back feet smaller than 30 mm: House mouse, Multi-mammate rat, Pacific rat.
Tell-tale damage
Rats leave relatively large fragments of grain they have nibbled at (gnaw marks). They generally only eat the embryo of maize. Sharp and small leftovers are typical for mice. Rodent attack can further be detected by damaged sacks where grain is spilled and scattered. Small heaps of grain beneath bag stacks are a clear sign. These should be checked for using a torch on regular controls.
Attention should be paid to damaged doors, cables and other material.
Burrows and nests
Depending on their habits, rodents either build nests inside the store in corners as well as in the roof area or in burrows outside the store. Rat holes have a diameter of between 6 and 8 cm, whereas mice holes are around 2 cm in diameter. These holes can be found particularly in overgrown areas or close to the foundations of a store.
Urine traces are fluorescent in ultraviolet light. Where available, ultraviolet lamps can be used to look for traces of urine.
Preventive measures
The most essential factors for the occurrence of rodents are:
· sufficient supplies of food
· protected places in which to build burrows and nests
· hiding places
· access to produce
Good store management and preventive measures taken as part of an integrated control programme can help to deal with these factors.
Storage Hygiene and Technical Measures
· Keep the store absolutely clean! Remove any spilt grain immediately as it attracts rodents!
· Store bags in tidy stacks set up on pallets, ensuring that there is a space of I m all round the stack!
· Store any empty or old bags and fumigation sheets on pallets, and if possible in separate stores!
· Keep the store free of rubbish in order not to provide the animals with any places to hide or nest! Bum or bury it!
· Keep the area surrounding the store free of tall weeds so as not to give the animals any cover! They have an aversion to crossing open spaces.
· Keep the area in the vicinity of the store free of any stagnant water and ensure that rainwater is drained away, as it can be used as source of drinking water.
Keeping Rodents Out
The requirements of preventive rodent control must be taken into account whenever new stores are being built. Particular attention should be paid to doors, ventilation openings, brickwork and the junctions between the roof and the walls. Repair any damage to the store immediately! This applies especially to the doors.

Testing a Rice mill for performance and quality

Visit a rice mill and sample the paddy before milling, brown rice after husking and the milled grain after processing. At the same time, monitor the performance of the rice mill by collecting the outputs from all of the outlets from the mill over a given time period.
The following samples need to be collected and weighed at the rice mill
· Head rice
· Course brokens
· Fine brokens
· Brewers rice
· Course bran
· Fine bran ("meal")
· Husk
Samples will be collected for 10 minutes from each outlet. An open woven bag will be necessary to collect the husk.
Use the miller’s scales
Sub samples will be taken from each of the outlets so that they can be analyzed in the laboratory
Sampling times. Sampling times will depend on the capacity of the mill. A good benchmark is to collect from each outlet for at least 10 minutes.
Expected outputs. A good quality mill will produce 55% head rice, 15% brokens, 10% bran and 20% husk, all on % paddy weight basis
Sampling outputs. Collect a grain sample from the paddy, brown rice and from all stages of the process. Check the list.
Collect (yes)
Collect (yes)
Head rice
Brown rice
Large broken
Ist whitener
2nd whitener
Make an assessment of where in the rice mill improvements could be made to improve the milling output.

Standards and grades for milled rice

Standards can be defined as a quantitative way by which we measure and compare certain quality characteristics. This measured comparison of recognizable quality characteristics can described as ‘grading’.
To date, there are few universally accepted international standards for paddy and milled rice. This is primarily due to a differences in emphasis on the importance of grading paddy and milled rice quality among countries. However, national standards exist and are being used as a marketing basis. As an example, the table shows national standards for milled rice in the Philippines.

In general, grading factors for paddy are (1) purity, (2) foreign matter, (3) defectives and (4) moisture content. For milled rice, the characteristics considered for grading are (1) head rice, brokens and brewers percentages (2)defectives, (3) foreign matter, (4) presence of paddy and (5) moisture content.
Objectives of establishing standards and grades
1. to ensure only edible rice reaches the consumer;
2. to improve postharvest practices so as to eliminate or reduce waste;
3. to improve agronomic practices to increase farm yields;
4. to improve processing practices for better milling recoveries and for market expansion and
5. to protect consumers from price/quality manipulation.
In relation to the first objective, the characteristics such as moisture content, foreign material, seeds and discolored (damaged) grains are important considerations in assuring that only edible rice reaches the consumers. By setting standards for degree of milling, broken rice content, moisture and damaged grains, the second objective is addressed. Better threshing and drying, and improved storage facilities are expected to emerge to meet the required standard. The third objective provides incentives to the farmer/agricultural scientist to optimize production by considering standards for chalkiness, varietal purity, foreign seeds, immature grains and red rice. The fourth objective provides a measure of the miller’s success in delivering high milling recovery and allowing the market expansion. Characteristics considered are standards for degree of milling, broken rice, paddy kernels and foreign matters. Finally, standards which clearly identify to consumers the true value of their purchases will provide the protection required against the possibility of unfair trading practices.
Comparison of rice mill output
Select a homogenous sample of paddy and run trials with different husking/whitening/polishing equipments, such as Satake abrasive mill, an Engleberg Rice Mill, a one-pass rubber roll mill. Input results using the sheet. Make a comparative analysis of the results obtained.
· Moisture content
· Head rice percentage
· Brokens
· Chalkiness
· Whiteness
· Milling degree
· Heat damaged/discolored grains
Quality of milled rice
Sample 1
Sample 2
Moisture content
Head rice
Milling degree
Discolored grains
Grade the milled rice samples based on the National standards of milled rice in the Philippines. Take recommendations on improving the paddy and rice grade.

Procedures for Measuring quality of milled rice

Milling degree
Milling degree is computed based on the amount of bran removed from the brown rice. To obtain the weight of brown rice, dehull the paddy samples using the Laboratory Huller.
Estimate the percent milling degree using the following equation:
Milling recovery
Using the Abrasive Whitener, mill the dehulled samples. Compute milling recovery by dividing the weight of milled rice recovered by the weight of the paddy sample, as follows:
Dockage in Milled Rice
Select, segregate and weigh the foreign matter. Record the number of unhulled grains collected from the sample. Determine the percentage of dockage of milled rice using the equation:
Broken grain
Using the Grain Grader, separate the broken grain from the whole grains. Compute the percentage of the head rice and brokens using the following equations:
A visual rating of the chalky proportion of the grain is used to measure chalkiness based on the standard Evaluation System SES scale presented below:

% area of chalkiness
less than 10
more than 20
Select, segregate and weigh the chalky grains (SES Scale 9). Determine the % chalky grain using the equation:
Measure the grain whiteness using the Whiteness Meter. Separate and weigh yellow-fermented grains. Calculate the percentage of yellow/fermented grains using the formula:
Grain Shape
Follow the procedure of determining grain shape of paddy. Based on the length to width ratio, the shape of the milled rice will be determined. L/W ration is given by:
The ISO Classification is as follows:
L/W ratio
Over 3.0
2.1 – 3.0
1.1 – 2.0
1.0 or less
1000 grain weight
Count and weigh 1,000 whole grains.
Amylose content.
Select twenty grains and ground them in a Cyclone Mill. Amylose content is analyzed using the simplified iodine colorimetric procedure. Samples are categorized into low, intermediate and high based on the following grouping:
%Amylose Content
Very low amylose
Gelatinization temperature (GT)
GT is measured by determining the alkali-spreading value for which the alkali digestibility test is employed. Grains are soaked in 1.7% KOH and incubated in a 30oC oven for 23 hours. Measurement ranges are based on the following: Gelatinization temperature is estimated by the extent of alkali spreading and clearing of milled rice soaked in 1.7% KOH at room temperature or at 39oC for 23 hours. The degree of spreading is measured using a seven-point scale as follows:
1. grain not affected
2. grain swollen,
3. grain swollen, collar incomplete and narrow,
4. grain swollen, collar complete and wide,
5. grain split or segmented, collar complete and wide,
6. grain dispersed, merging with collar; and
7. grain completely dispersed and intermingled.
Temp ranges (oC)
Alkali Spreading Value
Gel consistency
Select from two to 10 grains and ground separately in the Wig-L Bug. Gel consistency is measured by the cold gel in a horizontally-held test tube, for one hour. Measurement ranges and category are as follows:
Consistency, mm

Procedures for Measuring quality of paddy grain

Crack Detector
Using the Paddy Crack Detector, count the number of cracked grains in a 100 grain sample then compute the % cracked grains using the equation:
Grain Dimensions
Using a caliper or photographic enlarger, collect 20 paddy samples at random from each replicate and measure the dimensions to obtain the average length and width of the paddy grains. To obtain the paddy shape, the following equation can be used:
Paddy can classified based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for paddy
Immature Grains
Select a 25 gm grain sample and select, segregate and weigh the immature grains in sample. Calculate the percentage immature grains in the sample using the formula:
Dockage in Paddy
Remove light foreign matter, stones, weed and seeds from a 100gm sample. Obtain the total weight then compute the dockage percentage as follows:
1000 Kernel Weight
Determined by counting and weigh 1,000 grains (paddy).

Sheet exercise 1. Quality of paddy or rough rice

Sample 1
Sample 2
Moisture (oven)
Moisture (meter)
L/W ratio
Cracked grains
Immature grains
1000 kernel wt.

Paddy quality determination

Collect two samples of approximately 500 grams of fresh paddy, and determine the following characteristics by following the procedures as outlines above. Use the sheet to record your findings
· Moisture content (oven method, and moisture meter)
· Grain dimensions (L/W ratio)
· Dockage-weeds
· Dockage-inert matter
· Insects (dead, alive)
· Cracked grains
· Unfilled or immature grains
· Discolored and damaged grains
· 1000 kernel weight

Physical characteristics

Milling degree
The degree of milling is a measure of the percent bran removed from the brown rice kernel. Milling degree affects milling recovery and influences consumer acceptance. Apart from the amount of white rice recovered, milling degree influences the color and also the cooking behavior of rice. Unmilled brown rice absorbs water poorly and does not cook as quickly as milled rice. The water absorption rate improves progressively up to about 25% milling degree after which, there is very little effect.
Head rice
"Head rice" or head rice percentage is the weight of head grain or whole kernels in the rice lot. Head rice normally includes broken kernels that are 75-80% of the whole kernel. High head rice yield is one of the most important criteria for measuring milled rice quality. Broken grain has normally only half of the value of head rice. The actual head rice percentage in a sample of milled rice will depend on both varietal characteristics (i.e. the potential head rice yield), production factors, and harvesting, drying and milling process. In general harvesting, drying, and milling can be responsible for some losses and damage to the grain.
Whiteness is a combination of varietal physical characteristics and the degree of milling. In milling, the whitening and polishing greatly affect the whiteness of the grain. During whitening, the silver skin and the bran layer of the brown rice is removed. Polishing after whitening is carried out to improve the appearance of the white rice. During polishing some of the bran particles stick to the surface of the rice which polishes and gives a shinier appearance.
If part of the milled rice kernel is opaque rather than translucent, it is often characterized as "chalky". Chalkiness disappears upon cooking and has no effect on taste or aroma, however it downgrades milled rice. Excessive chalkiness is caused by interruption during the final stages of grain filling. Though chalkiness disappears upon cooking and has no direct effect on cooking and eating qualities, excessive chalkiness downgrades the quality and reduces milling recovery.
Chemical characteristics
Gelatinization temperature
The time required for cooking milled rice is determined by gelatinization temperature or GT. Environmental conditions, such as temperature during ripening, influence GT. A high ambient temperature during development results in starch with a higher GT. GT of milled rice is evaluate by determinining the Alkali spreading value. In many rice-growing countries, there is a distinct preference for rice with intermediate gelatinization temperature.
Amylose content
Starch makes up about 90% of the dry matter content of milled rice. Starch is a polymer of glucose and amylose is a linear polymer of glucose. The amylose content of starches usually ranges from 15 to 35%. High amylose content rice shows high volume expansion (not necessarily elongation) and high degree of flakiness. High amylose grains cook dry, are less tender, and become hard upon cooling. In contrast, low-amylose rice cooks moist and sticky. Intermediate amylose rice are preferred in most rice-growing areas of the world, except where low-amylose japonicas are grown.
Based on amylose content, milled rice is classified in "amylose groups", as follows:
· waxy (1-2% amylose),
· very low amylose content (2-9% amylose),
· low amylose content (10-20% amylose),
· intermediate amylose content (20-25% amylose) and
· high amylose content (25-33% amylose).
Amylose content of milled rice is determined by using the colorimetric iodine assay index method.
Gel consistency
Gel consistency measures the tendency of the cooked rice to harden after cooling. Within the same amylose group, varieties with a softer gel consistency are preferred, and the cooked rice has a higher degree of tenderness. Harder gel consistency is associated with harder cooked rice and this feature is particularly evident in high-amylose rice. Hard cooked rice also tends to be less sticky. Gel consistency is determined by heating a small quantity of rice in a dilute alkali.

Quality characteristics of milled rice

The quality characteristics of milled rice are classified both physically, and chemically.
Review the following terms before reading about physical and chemical characteristics of milled rice:
· Paddy or rough rice = similar term for paddy, or rice retaining its husk after threshing
· Brown rice or husked rice = paddy from which the husk has been removed
· Milled rice = rice after milling which includes removing all or part of the bran and germ from the husked rice
· Head rice = milled rice with length greater or equal to three quarters of the average length of the whole kernel
· Large brokens = milled rice with length less than three quarters but more than one quarter of the average length of the whole kernel
· Small brokens or "brewers rice" = milled rice with length less than one quarter of the average length of the whole kernel
· Whole kernel = milled rice grain without any broken parts
· Milling recovery = percentage of milled rice (including brokens) obtained from a sample of paddy.
· Head rice recovery = percentage of head rice (excluding brokens) obtained from a sample of paddy.



Pakistan is a land of many splendours. The scenery changes northward from coastal beaches, lagoons and mangrove swamps in the south to sandy deserts, desolate plateaus, fertile plains, dissected upland in the middle and high mountains with beautiful valleys, snow-covered peaks and eternal glaciers in the north.

The variety of landscape divides Pakistan into six major regions:

the North High Mountainous Region, the Western Low Mountainous Region, the Balochistan Plateau, the Potohar Uplands, the Punjab and the Sindh Plains.
High Mountain Region: Stretching in the North, from east to west, are a series of high mountain ranges which separate Pakistan from China, Russia and Afghanistan. They include the Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush. The Himalayas spread in the north-east and the Karakoram rises on the north-west of the Himalayas and extends eastward up to Gilgit. The Hindu Kush mountains lie to the north-west of the Karakoram, but extend eastward into Afghanistan. With the assemblage of 35 giant peaks over 24,000 ft. high (7,315m), the region is the climbers' paradise. Many summits are even higher than 26,000 ft.(7,925 m) and the highest K-2(Mt.Godwin Austin) is exceeded only by Mt.Everest. Inhospitable and technically more difficult to climb than even Everest, they have taken the biggest toll of human lives in the annals of mountaineering.
The passes are rarely lower than the summit of Mt. Blanc and several are over 18,000 ft. (5,485 m). The Karakoram Highway, that passes through the mountains, is the highest trade route in the world. Besides, the region abounds in vast glaciers, large lakes and green valleys which have combined at places to produce holiday resorts such as Gilgit, Hunza and Yasin in the west and the valleys of Chitral, Dir, Kaghan and Swat drained by rivers Chitral, Pankkora, Kunhar and Swat respectively in the east. Dotted profusely with scenic spots having numerous streams and rivulets, thick forests of pine and junipers and a vast variety of fauna and flora, the Chitral, Kaghan and Swat valleys have particularly earned the reputation of being the most enchanting tourist resorts of Pakistan.
South of the high mountains, the ranges lose their height gradually and settle down finally in the Margalla hills (2,000-3,000 ft.) in the vicinity of Islamabad, the Capital of Pakistan, and Swat and Chitral hills, north of river Kabul. Although the climate of the region is extremely diverse, according to aspect and elevation, yet as a whole it remains under the grip of severe cold from November to April. May, June and July are pleasant months. The southeren slopes receive heavy rainfall and consequently are covered with forest of deodar, pine, poplar and willow trees. The more northerly ranges and north-facing slopes receive practically no rains and are, therefore, without trees.
There is a considerable trans-humane from the mountains to the plains in winter and from plains to the mountains in summer. The permanent settlers grow corn, maize, barely, wheat and rice on the terraced fields and also raise orchards of apples, apricots, peaches and grapes. Peaks and Glaciers Eric Shipton, a great mountainer who perished in Pakistan's Northern Areas, wrote in his account. To describe this region is to indulge in superlatives, for everywhere you look are the highest, the longest and the largest mountains, glaciers and rivers in the world.
Making some allowance for Shipton's tendency towards slight exaggeration, born out of awe and fascination, the fact remains that Pakistan boasts of the largest share of the highest mountain peaks in the world. Its own highest peak, the famed and dreaded K-2, is the second highest in the world, being just some `ropes' short of the Everest in Nepal. With due respect to the Everest, K-2 is regarded as far more firmidable to climb than its relatively facile superior. Three of the mightiest mountain systems- the Hindukush, the Karakorams and the Himalayas- adorn the forehead of Pakistan. The second highest peak of Himalayas, as also of Pakistan, is the Nanga Parbat which literally means the "Naked Mountain".
Pakistan has seven of the 16 tallest peaks in Asia. The statistics are simply baffling: 40 of the world's 50 highest mountains are in Pakistan; in Baltistan over 45 peaks touch or cross the 20,000 foot mark; in Gilgit within a radius of 65 miles, there are over two dizens peaks ranging in height between 18,000 to 26,000 feet.
The awe-inspiring beauty provided inspiration to a Pakistani writer to observe lyrically, "in Pakistan's lofty mountain regions, reaching for the sky doesn't seem too ambitious". Pakistan's Eight Thousanders: There are a total of 14 main peaks soaring above 8000 metres in the world. Out of these, 8 are located in Nepal, 5 in Pakistan and 1 in China. It has become prestigious to make these peaks as targets by mountaineers every year. In fact, successful climb over these peaks is considered an enviable measure of their attainment. By far, the largest number of mountaineering expeditions visiting Pakistan has been coming from Japan.
K-2 (8,611 m) It is the second highest mountain the world. It was first attempted by Martin Conway's expedition in 1902 which was composed of British, Austrian and Swiss climbers. Ashraf Aman was the first Pakistani climber to climb on top of K-2 with five other climbers of the Jap-Pak expedition in 1977, with Ichire Yoshizawa as its leader and Isao Shinkai as the technical leader.
Nanga Parbat (8,125 m) It is also known as the killer mountain. It claimed the life of AF Mummery, leader of an expedition and two porters in 1895. Since then Nanga Parbat has cost scores of lives, though quite a few have successfully scaled it. Harmann Buhl was the first to set foot on this formidable peak in 1953. In spite of its bloody past record, Nanga Parbat is still the most sought after target. Its dangerous challenge seems to add spurs to the determination of climbers.
Hidden Peak (8,068 m) This peak was first attempted in 1892 by Martin Conway's expedition who gave it this name because it was hidden by the neighbouring peaks of Baltoro glacier. The peak was first conquered in 1958 by an American expedition. Nick clinch was the leader. The climbing leaders Peter Schoening and Kanfuran were the two summiters.
Broad Peak (8,047 m) This peak was also named by Martin Conway and was first attempted by a German expedition headed by Karl Herligk offer in 1954. The peak was climbed in 1957 when the entire team of four climbers with Marcus Schmuck scaled it.
In the far-north of Pakistan are valleys which are closed within the silent, brooding forts of these mountains and are almsot as high as the mountains themselves. Here dwell, from times immemorial, various tribes differing in race and culture. If one tribe has Mongol features, its neighbour is obviously Aryan. Separated by insurmountable obstacles, these tribes very often live a totally land-locked existence blissfully unaware of the world beyond. But, a traveller is simply wonderstruck by one common element - Islam.
Every-where you hear the familiar Assalam-o-Alaikum, the universal Muslim greeting and welcome. and no matter how small or poor the inhibtation, the same muezzin's call to prayer "Allah-u-Akbar rings in the thin mountain air, issuing from the minarets of mosques hidden in the inaccessible fold of these ranges pulsates an infinite variety of life; animals reptiles, birds, insects and plants. There is, of course, the yak which is an enormous but docile beast, at once the beast of burden and food. It is notable in the wildlife of these regions, but, its hunting is strictly restricted and in many areas totally forbidden by law.


Pakistan has more glaciers than any other land outside the North and South Poles. Pakistan's glacial area covers some 13,680 sq.km which represents an average of 13 per cent of mountain regions of the upper Indus Basin. Pakistan's glaciers can rightly claim to possess the greatest mass and collection of glaciated space on the face of earth. In fact, in the lap of the Karakoram of Pakistan alone there are glaciers whose total length would add up to abvoe 6,160 sq. km. To put it more precisely, as high as 37 per cent of the Karakoram area is under its glaciers against Himalayas' 17 per cent and European Alps' 22 per cent. The Karakorams have one more claim to proclaim; its souther flank (east and west of the enormous Biafo glacier) has a concentration of glaciers which works out to 59 per cent of its area.
There is a historical reason for the fact that we, and the world outside, are better acquainted with glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region. It is through this region, hazardous though it is, that man has trudged to and fro since the beginning of his civilized history of movement and migration. The Siachin glacier is 75 kms. The Hispar (53 kms) joins the Biafo at the Hispar La (5154.16 metres (16,910 ft) to form an ice corridor 116.87 kms (72 miles) long. The Batura, too is 58 kms in length. But, the most outstanding of these rivers of ice is the 62 kms Baltoro. This mighty glacier fed by some 30 tributaries constitues a surface of 1291.39 sq. kms. Western Low Mountains Region.
These western low mountains spread from the Swat and Chitral hills in a north-south direction (along which alexander the Great led his army in 327 B.C) and cover a large portion of the North-West Frontier Province. North of the river Kabul their altitude ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 ft. in Mohamand and Malakand hills. The aspect of these hills is exceedingly dreary and the eye is everywhere met by the dry rivers between long rows of rocky hills and crags, scantily covered with coarse grass, scrub wood and dwarf palm. South of the river Kabul spreads the Koh-e-Sofed Range with a general height of 10,000 ft. Its highest peak, Skaram, being 15,620 ft. South of Koh-e-Sofed are the Kohat and Waziristan hills (5,000 ft) which are traversed by the Kurram and Tochi rivers, and are bounded on south by Gomal River.
The whole area is a tangle of arid hills composed of limestone and sandstone. South of the Gomal River, the Sulaiman Mountains run for a distance of about 483 kilomaters in a north-south direction, Takht-e-Sulaiman (11,295 ft.) being its highest peak. At the southern end lie the low Marri and Bugti hills. The area shows an extraordinary landscape of innumerable scarps, small plateaus and steep craggy out-crops with terraced slopes and patches of alluvial basins which afford little cultivation.
Kirthar Range South of the Sulaiman Mountains is the Kirthar Range which forms a boundary between the Sindh plain and the Balochistan plateau. It consists of a series of ascending ridges running generally north to south with broad flat valleys in-between. The highgest peak named Kutte ji Kabar (dog's grace is 6,878 ft. above sea level. Bleak, rugged and barren as these hills are, they afford some pasturage for flocks of sheep and goats. The valleys are green with grass and admit cultivation up to a highest of 4,000 ft. Historical Passes The western mountains have a number of passes, which are of special geographical and historical interest. For centuries, they have been watching numerous kings, generals and preachers passing through them and the events that followed brought about momentous changes in the annals of mankind.
Although the country is in the monsoon region, it is arid, except for the southern slopes of the Himalayas and the sub-Mountainous tract which have a rainfall from 76 to 127 cm. Balochistan is the driest part of the country with an average rainfall of 21 cm. On the southern ranges of the Himalayas, 127 cm. of precipitation takes place, while under the lee of these mountains (Gilgit and Baltistan) rainfall is hardly 16 cm. Rainfall also occurs from western cyclonic distrubances originating in the Mediterranean.
It is appreciable in the western mountains and the immediate forelying area; hre the rainfall average ranges from 27 to 76 cm. The contribution of these western distrurbances to rainfall over the plains is about 4 cm. A large part of the precipitation in the northern mountain system is in the form of snow which feeds the rivers. The all-pervasive aridity over most of Pakistan, the predominant influence on the life and habitat of the people, coupled with the climatic rhythm, characteristic of a monsoon climate, are conducive to homogeneity of the land.
The four well-marked seasons in Pakistan are:-
Cold season (December to March).
Hot season (April to June).
Monsoon season (July to September).
Post-Monsoon season (October and November).

The cold season sets in by the middle of December. This period is characterised by fine weather, bracing air-low humidity and large diurnal range of temperature. Winter distrubances in this season accordingly cause fairly widespread rain. Average mimimum and maximum temperatures are 4 oC and 18 oC, though on occasions the mercury falls well below freezing point. The winter sun is glorious. The hot season is usually dry. Relative humidity in May and June varies from 50 per cent in the morning to 25 per cent or less in the afternoon. The temperature soars to 40 oC and beyond. The highest recorded temperature at Jaccobabad in June is 53 oC. While the interior is blazing hot, the temperature along the sea coast ranges between 25 oC to 35 oC, but the humidity persists around 70 to 80 per cent.
The south-west monsoon reaches Pakistan towards the beginning of July and establishes itself by the middle of the month. The strength of the monsoon current increases form June to July; it then remains steady, and starts retreating towards the end of August, though occasionally, it continues to be active even in September when some of the highest floods of the Indus Basin have been recorded. From the middle of September to the middle of November is the transitory period which may be called the post-monsoon season.
In October, the maximum temperature is of the order of 34 oC to 37 oC all over Pakistan, while the nights are fairly cool with the minimum temperature around 16 oC. In the month of November, both the maximum and the mimimum temperatures fall by about 6 oC and the weather becomes pleasant. October and November are by far the driest months all over the plains of Pakistan.

People and Population

The population of the country as on 1st January, 1994, is estimated at about 124.45 million with its male/female ratio of 52.50:47.50 per cent. The current growth rate of 3.0 per cent is the highest among nine most populous countries of the world. The population is expected to reach 150 million by the year 2000. Density per square kilometre is 156 persons. Literacy rate is estimated to be 36.8 per cent. Of the four provinces, with 25.8 per cent of land area of the country, Punjab has 56.5 per cent of the total population; Sindh, with 17.7 per cent of land area, has 22.6 per cent: NWFP, (including FATA) with 12.8 per cent of land area, has 15.7 per cent; Balochistan, with 43.6 per cent of land area, has 5.1 per cent. Thus, Punjab is the most densely (240 persons per sq km) populated province, follwed by Sindh and NWFP. Balochistan is the least populated province, with 19 persons per square kilomatre. The overall population density of the country is 156 persons per square kilometre as estimated in 1994. Sindh is the urbainised province with 43 per cent of the people living in urban areas including Karachi City. The urban population of Punjab is 28 per cent followed by NWFP, 21 per cent, and Balochistan 16 per cent. About 67 per cent of the total urban population of the country lives in 28 cities with population of 100,000 and above, while 57 per cent of the total urban population lives in 12 cities with population lives in 12 cities with population of 200,000 and above. Age Composition According to the Labour Force Survey, 1990-91, 46.93 of the population is under 15 years of age; 49.66 per cent is between the age groups of 15 and 64 years, while 3.41 per cent comprises persons 65 years old and above.



History in Chronological Order

Pakistan emerged on the world map on August 14,1947. It has its roots into the remote past. Its establishment was the culmination of the struggle by Muslims of the South-Asian subcontinent for a separate homeland of their own and its foundation was laid when Muhammad bin Qasim subdued Sindh in 711 A.D. as a reprisal against sea pirates that had taken refuge in Raja Dahir's kingdom.
The advent of Islam further strengthened the historical individuality in the areas now constituting Pakistan and further beyond its boundaries. Stone Age Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man in the subcontinent are found in the Soan Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, with a probable antiquity of about 500,000 years. No human skeleton of such antiquity has yet been discovered in the area, but the crude stone implements recovered from the terraces of the Soan carry the saga of human toil and labor in this part of the world to the inter-glacial period. These Stone Age men fashioned their implements in a sufficiently homogenous way to justify their grouping in terms of a culture called the Soan Culture. About 3000 B.C, amidst the rugged wind-swept valleys and foothills of Balochistan, small village communities developed and began to take the first hesitant steps towards civilization. Here, one finds a more continuous story of human activity, though still in the Stone Age.
These pre-historic men established their settlements, both as herdsmen and as farmers, in the valleys or on the outskirts of the plains with their cattle and cultivated barley and other crops. Red and buffer Cultures Careful excavations of the pre-historic mounds in these areas and the classification of their contents, layer by layer, have grouped them into two main categories of Red Ware Culture and Buff Ware Culture. The former is popularly known as the Zhob Culture of North Balochistan, while the latter comprises the Quetta, Amri Nal and Kulli Cultures of Sindh and South Balochistan. Some Amri Nal villages or towns had stone walls and bastions for defence purposes and their houses had stone foundations. At Nal, an extensive cemetery of this culture consists of about 100 graves. An important feature of this composite culture is that at Amri and certain other sites, it has been found below the very distinctive Indus Valley Culture. On the other hand, the steatite seals of Nal and the copper implements and certain types of pot decoration suggest a partial overlap between the two. It probably represents one of the local societies which constituted the environment for the growth of the Indus Valley Civilization.
The pre-historic site of Kot Diji in the Sindh province has provided information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the origin of this civilization by 300 to 500 years, from about 2500 B.C.. to at least 2800 B.C. Evidence of a new cultural elements of pre-Harappan era has been traced here. Pre-Harappan Civilization When the primitive village communities in the Balochistan area were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji, one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world which flourished between the years 2500 and 1500 B.C. in the Indus Valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. These Indus Valley people possessed a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well developed system of quasi pictographic writing, which despite continuing efforts still remains undeciphered. The imposing ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns present clear evidence of the unity of a people having the same mode of life and using the same kind of tools. Indeed, the brick buildings of the common people, the public baths, the roads and covered drainage system suggest the picture of a happy and contented people. Aryan Civilization In or about 1500 B.C., the Aryans descended upon the Punjab and settled in the Sapta Sindhu, which signifies the Indus plain. They developed a pastoral society that grew into the Rigvedic Civilization. The Rigveda is replete with hymns of praise for this region, which they describe as "God fashioned". It is also clear that so long as the Sapta Sindhu remained the core of the Aryan Civilization, it remained free from the caste system. The caste institution and the ritual of complex sacrifices took shape in the Gangetic Valley. There can be no doubt that the Indus Civilization contributed much to the development of the Aryan civilization. Gandhara Culture The discovery of the Gandhara grave culture in Dir and Swat will go a long way in throwing light on the period of Pakistan's cultural history between the end of the Indus Culture in 1500 B.C. and the beginning of the historic period under the Achaemenians in the sixth century B.C. Hindu mythology and Sanskrit literary traditions seem to attribute the destruction of the Indus civilization to the Aryans, but what really happened, remains a mystery. The Gandhara grave culture has opened up two periods in the cultural heritage of Pakistan: one of the Bronze Age and the other of the Iron Age. It is so named because it presents a peculiar pattern of living in hilly zones of the Gandhara region as evidenced in the graves. This culture is different from the Indus Culture and has little relations with the village culture of Balochistan. Stratigraphy as well as the artifacts discovered from this area suggest that the Aryans moved into this part of the world between 1,500 and 600 B.C. In the sixth century B.C., Buddha began his teachings, which later on spread throughout the northern part of the South-Asian subcontinent. It was towards the end of this century, too, that Darius I of Iran organized Sindh and Punjab as the twentieth satrapy of his empire.
There are remarkable similarities between the organizations of that great empire and the Mauryan empire of the third century B.C., while Kautilya's Arthshastra also shows a strong Persian influence, Alexander of Macedonia after defeating Darius III in 330 B.C. had also marched through the South-Asian subcontinent up to the river Beas, but Greek influence on the region appears to have been limited to contributing a little to the establishment of the Mauryan empire. The great empire that Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, built in the subcontinent included only that part of the Indus basin which is now known as the northern Punjab. The rest of the areas astride the Indus were not subjugated by him. These areas, which now form a substantial part of Pakistan, were virtually independent from the time of the Guptas in the fourth century A.D. until the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in the thirteenth century. Gandhara Art Gandhara Art, one of the most prized possessions of Pakistan, flourished for a period of 500 years (from the first to the fifth century A.D.) in the present valley of Peshawar and the adjacent hilly regions of Swat, Buner and Bajaur. This art represents a separate phase of the cultural renaissance of the region. It was the product of a blending of Indian, Buddhist and Greco-Roman sculpture. Gandhara Art in its early stages received the patronage of Kanishka, the great Kushan ruler, during whose reign the Silk Route ran through Peshawar and the Indus Valley, bringing great prosperity to the whole area. Advent of Islam The first followers of prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), to set foot on the soil of the South-Asian subcontinent, were traders from the coast land of Arabia and the Persian Gulf, soon after the dawn of Islam in the early seventh century A.D.


The first permanent Muslim foothold in the subcontinent was achieved with Muhammad bin Qasim's conquest of Sindh in 711 A.D. An autonomous Muslim state linked with the Umayyed, and later, the Abbassid Caliphate was established with jurisdiction extending over southern and central parts of present Pakistan. Quite a few new cities were established and Arabic was introduced as the official language. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazna's invasion, Muslim rule still existed, though in a weakened form, in Multan and some other regions. The Ghaznavids (976-1148) and their successors, the Ghaurids (1148-1206), were Central Asian by origin and they ruled their territories, which covered mostly the regions of present Pakistan, from capitals outside India. It was in the early thirteenth century that the foundations of the Muslim rule in India were laid with extended boundaries and Delhi as the capital. From 1206 to 1526 A.D., five different dynasties held sway. Then followed the period of Mughal ascendancy (1526-1707) and their rule continued, though nominally, till 1857. From the time of the Ghaznavids, Persian more or less replaced Arabic as the official language. The economic, political and religious institutions developed by the Muslims bore their unique impression. The law of the State was based on Shariah and in principle the rulers were bound to enforce it. Any long period of laxity was generally followed by reinforcement of these laws under public pressure. The impact of Islam on the South-Asian subcontinent was deep and far-reaching. Islam introduced not only a new religion, but a new civilization, a new way of life and new set of values. Islamic traditions of art and literature, of culture and refinement, of social and welfare institution, were established by Muslim rulers throughout the subcontinent. A new language, Urdu, derived mainly from Arabic and Persian vocabulary and adopting indigenous words and idioms, came to be spoken and written by the Muslims and it gained currency among the rest of the Indian population.


Apart from religion, Urdu also enabled the Muslim community during the period of its ascendancy to preserve its separate identity in the subcontinent.
Muslim Identity -- The question of Muslim identity, however assumed seriousness during the decline of Muslim power in South Asia. The first person to realize its acuteness was the scholar theologian, Shah Waliullah (1703-62). He laid the foundation of Islamic renaissance in the subcontinent and became a source of inspiration for almost all the subsequent social and religious reform movements of the nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. His immediate successors, inspired by his teachings, tried to establish a modest Islamic state in the north-west of India and they, under the leadership of Sayyed Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi (1786-1831), persevered in this direction. British Expansionism and Muslim Resistance Meanwhile, starting with the East India Company, the British had emerged as the dominant force in South Asia. Their rise to power was gradual extending over a period of nearly one hundred years. They replaced the Shariah by what they termed as the Anglo-Muhammadan law whereas Urdu was replaced by English as the official language. These and other developments had great social, economic and political impact especially on the Muslims of South Asia. The uprising of 1857, termed as the Indian Mutiny by the British and the War of Independence by the Muslims, was a desperate attempt to reverse the adverse course of events. Religious Institutions The failure of the 1857 War of Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event on them. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed deliberately a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties and estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighters were confiscated and conscious efforts were made to close all avenues of honest living for them. The Muslim response to this situation also aggravated their plight. Their religious leaders, who had been quite active, withdrew from the mainstream of the community life and devoted themselves exclusively to imparting religious education. Although the religious academies especially those of Deoband, Farangi Mahal and Rai Bareilly, established by the Ulema, did help the Muslims to preserve their identity, the training provided in these institutions hardly equipped them for the new challenges. Educational Reform The Muslims kept themselves aloof from western education as well as government service. But, their compatriots, the Hindus, did not do so and accepted the new rulers without reservation. They acquired western education, imbibed the new culture and captured positions hitherto filled in by the Muslims. If this situation had prolonged, it would have done the Muslims an irreparable damage. The man to realise the impending peril was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1889), a witness to the tragic events of 1857. He exerted his utmost to harmonize British Muslim relations. His assessment was that the Muslims' safety lay in the acquisition of western education and knowledge. He took several positive steps to achieve this objective. He founded a college at Aligarh to impart education on western lines. Of equal importance was the Anglo-Muhammadan Educational Conference, which he sponsored in 1886, to provide an intellectual forum to the Muslims for the dissemination of views in support of western education and social reform. Similar were the objectives of the Muhammadan Literary Society, founded by Nawab Adbul Latif (1828-93), active in Bengal, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's efforts transformed into a movement, known as the Aligarh Movement, and it left its imprint on the Muslims of every part of the South-Asian subcontinent. Under its inspiration, societies were founded throughout the subcontinent which established educational institutions for imparting education to the Muslims.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was averse to the idea of participation by the Muslims in any organized political activity which, he feared, might revive British hostility towards them. He also disliked Hindu Muslim collaboration in any joint venture. His disillusionment in this regard stemmed basically from the Urdu Hindi controversy of the late 1860s when the Hindu enthusiasts vehemently championed the cause of Hindi to replace Urdu. He, therefore, opposed the Indian National Congress when it was founded in 1885 and advised the Muslims to abstain from its activities. His contemporary and a great scholar of Islam, Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1928), shared his views about the Congress, but, he was not opposed to Muslims organizing themselves politically. In fact, he organised the first significant political body of the Muslims, the Central National Muhammadan Association. Although, its membership was limited, it had more than 50 branches in different parts of the subcontinent and it accomplished some solid work for the educational and political advancement of the Muslims. But, its activities waned towards the end of the nineteenth century. The Muslim League At the dawn of the twentieth century, a number of factors convinced the Muslims of the need to have an effective political organization. Therefore, in October 1906, a deputation comprising 35 Muslim leaders met the Viceroy of the British at Simla and demanded separate electorates. Three months later, the All-India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Salimullah Khan at Dhaka, mainly with the objective of safeguarding the political rights and interests of the Muslims. The British conceded separate electorates in the Government of India Act of 1909 which confirmed the Muslim League's position as an All-India party. Attempt for Hindu Muslim Unity The visible trend of the two major communities progressing in opposite directions caused deep concern to leaders of All-India stature. They struggled to bring the Congress and the Muslim League on one platform. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) was the leading figure among them. After the annulment of the partition of Bengal and the European Powers' aggressive designs against the Ottoman Empire and North Africa, the Muslims were receptive to the idea of collaboration with the Hindus against the British rulers.
The Congress Muslim League rapprochement was achieved at the Lucknow sessions of the two parties in 1916 and a joint scheme of reforms was adopted. In the Lucknow Pact. as the scheme was commonly referred to, the Congress accepted the principle of separate electorates, and the Muslims, in return for `weightage' to the Muslims of the Muslim minority provinces, agreed to surrender their thin majorities in the Punjab and Bengal. The post Lucknow Pact period witnessed Hindu Muslim amity and the two parties came to hold their annual sessions in the same city and passed resolutions of identical contents.


The Hindu Muslim unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation Movements. The Muslims of soothsayer, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the Movement. the ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.
Although the Movement failed in its objectives, it had a far-reaching impact on the Muslims of South Asia. After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue which momentarily forged solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public. This experience was of immense value to the Muslims later during the Pakistan Movement The collapse of the Khilafat Movement was followed by a period of bitter Hindu Muslim antagonism. The Hindus organized two highly anti Muslim movements, the Shudhi and the Sangathan. The former movement was designed to convert Muslims to Hinduism and the latter was meant to create solidarity among the Hindus in the event of communal conflict. In retaliation, the Muslims sponsored the Tabligh and Tanzim organizations to counter the impact of the Shudhi and the Sangathan. In the 1920s, the frequency of communal riots was unprecedented. Several Hindu-Muslim unity conferences were held to remove the causes of conflict, but, it seemed nothing could mitigate the intensity of communalism. Muslim Demand Safeguards In the light of this situation, the Muslims revised their constitutional demands. They now wanted preservation of their numerical majorities in the Punjab and Bengal, separation of Sindh from Bombay, constitution of Balochistan as a separate province and introduction of constitutional reforms in the North-West Frontier Province. It was partly to press these demands that one section of the All-India Muslim League cooperated with the Statutory commission sent by the British Government under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon in 1927.


The other section of the League, which boycotted the Simon Commission for its all-White character, cooperated with the Nehru Committee, appointed by the All-Parties Conference, to draft a constitution for India. The Nehru Report had an extremely anti-Muslim bias and the Congress leadership's refusal to amend it disillusioned even the moderate Muslims. Allama Muhammad Iqbal Several leaders and thinkers, having insight into the Hindu-Muslim question proposed separation of Muslim India. However, the most lucid exposition of the inner feeling of the Muslim community was given by Allama Muhammad Iqbal(1877-1938) in his Presidential Address at the All-India Muslim League Session at Allahabad in 1930. He suggested that for the healthy development of Islam in South-Asia, it was essential to have a separate Muslim state at least in the Muslim majority regions of the north-west. Later on, in his correspondence with Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he included the Muslim majority areas in the north-east also in his proposed Muslim state. Three years after his Allahabad Address, a group of Muslim students at Cambridge, headed by Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, issued a pamphlet, Now or Never, in which drawing letters from the names of the Muslim majority regions, they gave the nomenclature of "Pakistan" to the proposed State. Very few even among the Muslim welcomed the idea at the time. It was to take a decade for the Muslims to embrace the demand for a separate Muslim state. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Meanwhile, three Round Table Conferences were convened in London during 1930-32, to resolve the Indian constitutional problem. The Hindu and Muslim leaders, who were invited to these conferences, could not draw up an agreed formula and the British Government had to announce a `Communal Award' which was incorporated in the Government of India Act of 1935. Before the elections under this Act, the All-India Muslim League, which had remained dormant for some time, was reorganized by Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who had returned to India in 1934,after an absence of nearly five years in England. The Muslim League could not win a majority of Muslim seats since it had not yet been effectively reorganized. However, it had the satisfaction that the performance of the Indian National Congress in the Muslim constituencies was bad. After the elections, the attitude of the Congress leadership was arrogant and domineering. The classic example was its refusal to form a coalition government with the Muslim League in the United Provinces. Instead, it asked the League leaders to dissolve their parliamentary arty in the Provincial Assembly and join the Congress. Another important Congress move after the 1937 elections was its Muslim mass contact movement to persuade the Muslims to join the Congress and not the Muslim League. One of its leaders, Jawaharlal Nehru, even declared that there were only two forces in India, the British and the Congress. All this did not go unchallenged.
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah countered that there was a third force in South-Asia constituting the Muslims. The All-India Muslim League, under his gifted leadership, gradually and skillfully started organising the Muslims on one platform. Towards a Separate Muslim Homeland The 1930s witnessed awareness among the Muslims of their separate identity and their anxiety to preserve it within separate territorial boundaries. An important element that brought this simmering Muslim nationalism in the open was the character of the Congress rule in the Muslim minority provinces during 1937-39. The Congress policies in these provinces hurt Muslim susceptibilities. There were calculated aims to obliterate the Muslims as a separate cultural unit. The Muslims now stopped thinking in terms of seeking safeguards and began to consider seriously the demand for a separate Muslim state. During 1937-39, several Muslim leaders and thinkers, inspired by Allama Iqbal's ideas, presented elaborate schemes for partitioning the subcontinent according to two-nation theory. Pakistan Resolution The All-India Muslim League soon took these schemes into consideration and finally, on March 23, 1940, the All-India Muslim League, in a resolution, at its historic Lahore Session, demanded a separate homeland for the Muslims in the Muslim majority regions of the subcontinent. The resolution was commonly referred to as the Pakistan Resolution. The Pakistan demand had a great appeal for the Muslims of every persuasion. It revived memories of their past greatness and promised future glory. They, therefore, responded to this demand immediately. Cripps Mission The British Government recognized the genuineness of the Pakistan demand indirectly in the proposals for the transfer of power after the Second World War which Sir Stafford Cripps brought to India in 1942. Both the Congress and the All-India Muslim League rejected these proposals for different reasons. The principles of secession of Muslim India as a separate Dominion was however, conceded in these proposals. After this failure, a prominent Congress leader, C. Rajgopalacharia, suggested a formula for a separate Muslim state in the Working Committee of the Indian National Congress, which was rejected at the time, but later on, in 1944, formed the basis of the Jinnah-Gandhi talks. Demand for Pakistan.


The Pakistan demand became popular during the Second World War Every section of the Muslim community-men , women, students, Ulema and businessmen-were organized under the banner of the All-India Muslim League. Branches of the party were opened even in the remote corners of the subcontinent. Literature in the form of pamphlets, books, magazines and newspapers was produced to explain the Pakistan demand and distributed widely. The support gained by the All-India Muslim League and its demand for Pakistan was tested after the failure of the Simla Conference, convened by the Viceroy, Lord Wavell, in 1945. Elections were called to determine the respective strength of the political parties. The All-India Muslim League election campaign was based on the Pakistan demand. The Muslim community responded to this call in an unprecedented way. Numerous Muslim parties were formed making united parliamentary board at the behest of the Congress to oppose the Muslim League. But the All-India Muslim League swept all the thirty seats in the Central Legislature and in the provincial elections also, its victory was outstanding. After the elections, on April 8-9,1946, the All-India Muslim League called a convention of the newly-elected League members in the Central and Provincial Legislatures at Delhi. This convention, which constituted virtually a representative assembly of the Muslims of South Asia, on a motion by the Chief Minister of Bengal, Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, reiterated the Pakistan demand in clearer terms. Cabinet Plan In early 1946, the British Government sent a Cabinet Mission to the subcontinent to resolve the constitutional deadlock. The Mission conducted negotiations with various political parties, but failed to evolve an agreed formula. Finally, the Cabinet Mission announced its own Plan, which among other provisions, envisaged three federal groupings, two of them comprising the Muslim majority provinces, linked at the Centre in a loose federation with three subjects. The Muslim League accepted the plan, as a strategic move, expecting to achieve its objective in not-too-distant a future. The All-India Congress also agreed to the Plan, but, soon realising its implications, the Congress leaders began to interpret it in a way not visualized by the authorise of the Plan. This provided the All-India Muslim League an excuse to withdraw its acceptance of the Plan and the party observed August 16, as a `Direct Action Day' to show Muslim solidarity in support of the Pakistan demand. Partition Scheme In October 1946, an Interim Government was formed. The Muslim League sent its representative under the leadership of its General Secretary, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan, with the aim to fight for the party objective from within the Interim Government. After a short time, the situation inside the Interim Government and outside convinced the Congress leadership to accept Pakistan as the only solution of the communal problem. The British Government, after its last attempt to save the Cabinet Mission Plan in December 1946, also moved towards a scheme for the partition of India. The last British Viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, came with a clear mandate to draft a plan for the transfer of power.
After holding talks with political leaders and parties, he prepared a Partition Plan for the transfer of power, which, after approval of the British Government, was announced on June 3,1947. Emergence of Pakistan Both the Congress and the Muslim League accepted the Plan. Two largest Muslim majority provinces, Bengal and Punjab, were partitioned. The Assemblies of West Punjab, East Bengal and Sindh and in Balochistan, the Quetta Municipality, and the Shahi Jirga voted for Pakistan. Referenda were held in the North-West Frontier Province and the District of Sylhet in Assam, which resulted in an overwhelming vote for Pakistan. As a result, on August 14,1947, the new state of Pakistan came into existence.